Lessons from Pandemics in Jewish History

It may feel like our current crisis is completely unprecedented, but the truth is that we can look to history for evidence of what has happened before and how people have survived pandemics. Jewish and biblical history hold valuable insights into our present situation. 

Examples of Pandemics from the Bible

When King David conducted a census of the population, he ordered the counting of the people directly, instead of counting indirectly by means of half shekels (mahazit ha-shekel). As a result, the Rabbis tell us, a plague took place which killed 70,000 people, with 100 people dying each day.

It was decreed that the plague would be annulled if 100 brachot, or blessings, were recited each day. The Rabbis explain that since 100 people died each day from the plague, the recitation of 100 blessings a day would counteract midah kineged midah, or measure for measure (see Midash Rabba – Numbers 18:17; Tur 46, quoting Rav Netrunoi Gaon).

headofkingdavid
Head of King David, ca. 1145. Courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

In another instance, we find the terror of plagues in Leviticus 26:25, which states, “And I will bring the sword upon you… and when ye are gathered together within your cities, I will send the pestilence among you.” In yet another example, Ezekiel 7:15 states, “The sword is without and the pestilence and the famine within,” and, beyond that, the Philistines’ capture of the ark was said to cause a plague of hemorrhoids.

Examples of Rabbinic Responses

What remedies have Rabbis suggested over the ages to defend against epidemics?

The Talmud mentions the efficacy of offering prayers, particularly Tehillim (Psalms). If the situation does not allow large gatherings, then synchronized prayer, done at the same time in private domains, is effective.

This is also the theory behind daf yomi, developed by Rabbi Meir Shapiro. Jews around the world each study a page (daf) of the Talmud, the central text from which Jewish law is derived.

Being in quarantine or self-isolation at this time may give you more time to study, so you might like to keep in mind the elixir of old given by Rabbis for remedying not only physical illness, but also spiritual illness (refuat ha-nefesh ve refuat ha-guf). The Chofetz Chaim urges the study of laws regarding slander and gossip that are believed also to curb the onset of plague and  warns against causing harm psychologically of persons by “meanspeak“, embarassing person in public, and otherwise causing harm to individuals You might also like to learn about ethical principles which can be applied to the internet, as you interact with others in our digital world.

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Image by Darelle from Pixabay

Conclusion

Wiping out this pandemic requires basic respect for life as the ultimate good, respect for human dignity, and great doses of humility, compassion, and above all, care for the sanctify of life.

Ultimately we must recognize that the ways of G-d are beyond human logic. We can look to history to understand how humans have reacted in the past, but only time will tell how we react to our current challenge. Keeping in mind these lessons, we can help others along the way.

This article was contributed by David B. Levy, Chief Librarian at the Lander College for Women

Information in this post was drawn from yeshiva.org.il Wiki pagesThe Black Death by Robert S. Gottfried, and Biblical and Talmudic Medicine by Julius Preuss, translated by Fred Rosner.

Research Guides: More than just books

Scholar in study, 1700, by Johann Michael Bretschneider (National Museum of Wrocław)
Scholar in study, 1700, by Johann Michael Bretschneider (National Museum of Wrocław)

The Lander College for Women has been one of our most enthusiastic adopters of our Research Guides available through LibGuides. A blog post in 2014 linked 10 of the unique power points available on these guides, but there’s even more great information available.

Most libraries around the world post library guides or pathfinders on their websites that contain the standard gathering of relevant websites, particularly helpful specialized databases, bibliographies of related books, and links to chat or email reference. However what makes Touro’s library guides unique are not only the tailor-made PowerPoint presentations for classes offered at LCW, but the narrative introductions and unique informative essays, charts, outlines and exercises included on our large collection of Jewish studies guides. Continue reading

Presentations from the LCW Jewish Studies program

"Dead Sea Scroll Scholar Examination" by Habermann, Abraham Meir, 1901- - http://archive.org/details/scrollsfromdeser00habeuoft. Licensed under Public domain via Wikimedia Commons - http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dead_Sea_Scroll_Scholar_Examination.jpg#mediaviewer/File:Dead_Sea_Scroll_Scholar_Examination.jpg
“Dead Sea Scroll Scholar Examination” by Habermann, Abraham Meir, 1901– (CC0 image via Wikimedia Commons)

The LibGuides system has given Touro Libraries a one-stop location to highlight a handful of the best bets for researching a variety of subjects, but it also allows us to provide more in-depth coverage in our areas of expertise. Continue reading